Gangrene - Refers to body tissue that has died, normally from a lack of blood flow or infection.
Gastroparesis - Neuropathy that damages the nerves of the stomach which interferes with its function and can cause digestion to be delayed (gastric stasis) or incomplete, which can lead to vomiting, nausea, bloating, constipation, incontinence or diarrhea. This can make blood sugar control difficult.
Gestational diabetes - A form of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. More here
Gingivitis - An inflammation of the gums that is the first stage of periodontal (gum) disease. More here
Glucagon - A hormone produced in the pancreas that signals the release of the body's stored sugar (glycogen) from the liver into the blood, raising the blood sugar level. An injectable form can treat severe low blood sugar.
Glucose tolerance test - A glucose tolerance test used to test for diabetes or insulin resistance which is normally . in medical practice is the administration of glucose to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. The glucose is most often given orally so the common test is technically an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The test may be performed as part of a panel of tests, such as the comprehensive metabolic panel.
Glycosylated hemoglobin/Glycated hemoglobin test - See A1C Test
Glycemic index - A system of ranking the carbohydrates in food sources, and its effects on blood glucose levels. Foods with a high glycemic index ranking can cause unhealthy rises in blood sugar levels, and foods that rank lower on the glycemic index will have a more stable effect on blood sugar levels.
Glycogen - A form of sugar stored in the liver that is converted back into glucose when the pancreas releases a hormone called glucagon
Glycosuria - A condition that occurs when blood glucose levels rise above 180 to 200 mg/dL (10 to 11 mmol/L) exceeding the kidneys capacity to reabsorb glucose.
HDL Cholesterol - High density lipoprotein, also known as "good cholesterol" enables lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the blood stream. It is believed that a high level of HDL-C can protect against cardiovascular diseases by removing cholesterol from atheroma (a fatty deposit in the inner lining) within arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization.
Hemoglobin - Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to body tissues.
Hemoglobin A-1C test. See A1C Test
High blood sugar. See hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia - A term used to describe excessively high blood glucose levels. More here
Hyperinsulinemia - Refers to excessive levels of insulin circulating in the bloodstream. Hyperinsulinemia is not diabetes, but is often associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetics with insulin resistance.
Hyperosmolar syndrome - Hyperosmolar syndrome is a condition that occurs if blood glucose levels are allowed to rise above 600 mg/dL (33 mmol/L). This is when your blood glucose has reached such a high level that it becomes thick and syrupy. A filtering process is triggered when the excess glucose passes from your blood into your urine, drawing extreme amounts of fluid from your body. Life-threatening dehydration can occur if prompt medical attention is not obtained.
Hypoglycemia - A term used to describe extremely low blood glucose levels. More here