Impaired Fasting Glucose - Blood sugar levels during fasting that are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance - A condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal two hours after a meal but are not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Someone is said to have impaired glucose tolerance if their blood sugar level is between 140-199 mg/dL (7.7- 11 mmol/L) after an oral glucose tolerance test. Also called borderline diabetes and prediabetes.
Inhaled Insulin - Inhaled insulin is a powdered form of insulin that a diabetic patient breathes directly into their lungs for quick absorption into their bloodstream.
Insulin - Insulin is an anabolic hormone produced by the endocrine islets of Langerhans cells (a.k.a. beta cells, "islet cells") in the pancreas, and is the only hormone which decreases blood glucose levels.
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes - See Type 1 Diabetes
Insulinoma - Insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas in beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, however the tumor is not normally cancerous. The beta cells retain the ability to secrete insulin, but the tumor may cause an increase in the production of insulin that may result in frequent or consistent hypoglycemia ( Low Blood Sugar).
Insulin pen - An insulin pen is a relatively new product used for the injection of insulin. Insulin pens are pen-like instruments comprised of disposable needles, a vial of insulin, and a "pen". Insulin pens come in reloadable or disposable versions.
Insulin Pump - An insulin pump is a device that provides a steady amount or "basal rate" of insulin into a diabetic patient's body through a tube and needle inserted just under the patient's skin. The diabetic patient preprograms the pump to the desired basal rate and to release bolus doses at desired times, such as meal times or when blood sugar becomes too high.
Insulin Reaction - Another term used to describe hypoglycemia. Generally when blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL. More here
Insulin Resistance - Insulin resistance occurs when the cells of the body do not respond to the effects of insulin. Commonly believed to be associated with high blood pressure,obesity and high blood fats.
Intensive Therapy - Intensive therapy is a well planned and coordinated treatment for diabetes designed to keep the levels of blood sugar as close to normal as possible. This is accomplished using frequent injections of insulin or through the use of an insulin pump, proper meal planning, adjusting the dosages of medicines as well as a physician approved exercise plan based on blood sugar test results.
Islet Cells - Islet cells are groupings of cells in the pancreas that produce glucagon and insulin. See islets of Langerhans.
Islet Cell Transplantation - The process of extracting the insulin producing beta cells from the pancreas of a donor, and transplanting them into the pancreas of a patient whose pancreas is no longer producing insulin.
Islets of Langerhans - Groups of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones used by the body in the metabolism of food. Alpha cells within the pancreas are responsible for producing glucagon, and the beta cells are responsible for producing insulin.
Ketoacidosis - See diabetic ketoacidosis.
Ketones - Acidic substances that are produced when the body breaks down and uses fat, instead of sugar, for energy.
Ketonuria - Ketonuria is a condition that occurs when ketones are present in the urine, which is a warning sign of ketoacidosis. Also see ketones and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Ketosis - Ketosis is a buildup of ketones in the body that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Symptoms of ketosis are stomach pain, nausea and vomiting.